The stiff-armed salute of the National Socialist German Workers'
Party originated from a National Socialist in America -Francis Bellamy-
who wrote the Pledge of Allegiance in 1892, as shown by the historian
Dr. Rex Curry (author of "Pledge of Allegiance Secrets"). http://rexcurry.net/pledgesalute.html
Francis Bellamy was the cousin of Edward Bellamy. Edward
was the head of the Nationalism movement in America at that time, the
inspiration for Nationalist Clubs worldwide, and the founder of the
Nationalist Party. Edward was also the author of the national socialist
fantasy Looking Backward (1888), an international bestseller,
and in November, 1888, Edward personally made a contract with an interpreter
to translate his book into German (see the biography by Arthur Morgan,
In 1891, American advertisements listed German-language editions
of Bellamy's book and stated that the socialist's novel "Lays the foundation
of the Nationalist Movement." http://rexcurry.net/bellamy-charles-edward1891.pdf
The adverstisements coincide with Edward Bellamy's "Nationalist"
magazine, published by the "Nationalist Educational Association."
The German translation not only promoted National Socialism
in Germany, it also promoted National Socialism in America and cultivated
those Americans who later supported the USA's German-American Bund
movement that supported the National Socialist German Workers' Party.
It has been said that the Bellamys were "more Nazi than the Nazis."
Bellamy's comments in the Sprinfield Union newspaper
show his glorification of German folk life. According to the biographer
Sylvia E. Bowman, "To Bellamy, Americans had much to learn from the
Germans who enjoyed nature, had outdoor summer houses and beer gardens,
and from all of these, had found a placid contentment which contrasted
to the hustle and bustle of American life."
In 1935, Columbia University requested three people (John
Dewey, a philosopher; Charles Beard, a historian; and Edward Weeks,
the editor of Atlantic Monthly) to list the ten most influential
books of the preceding 50 years (from 1885 to 1935). On all three lists,
prepared independently, Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward appeared
second on the list, the first being Karl Marx’s Das Kapital. It
is important to remember that during this time of Bellamy's great influence,
the National Socialist German Workers’ Party had been in existence since
1920, with electoral breakthroughs in 1930, and dictatorship in 1933.
Many writers have suggested that Bellamy was viewed as an alternative
to Marx, and that view raised his influence among German National Socialists.
According to Gail Collins, at that time "...far more American
workers read Looking Backward than ever made it through Marx..." Tomorrow
Never Knows, The Nation, Vol. 252, Issue # 2, January 21, 1991.
The book was "debated by all down to the bootblack on the corner,"
reported Henry Demarest Lloyd in 1894.
The book, Edward Bellamy Abroad, by Sylvia E. Bowman,
is an amazing 543 pages of evidence that Edward Bellamy's scheme for
an "industrial army" (openly modeled after the military) was a bad
influence upon WWII and the socialist Wholecaust (of which the Holocaust
was a part): the National Socialist German Workers' Party (21 million
people slaughtered); the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (62 million
slaughtered); the People's Republic of China (35 million). (Also see
) In Bowman's chapter on Germany alone, there are 54 pages, with
comments about the monstrous National Socialist German Workers' Party,
mentioning the similarities in Bellamy's philosophy.
Looking Backward became an international bestseller, translated
into every major language, including German, and it inspired military
socialism worldwide. The book, described by socialists as the "Bible
of Nationalism," inspired the creation of 167 “Nationalist Clubs”
worldwide, including Germany. In the USA and in Germany it inspired
the "Nationalism" movement, the "Nationalist" magazine, the "Nationalist
Educational Association," and the "Nationalist Party." Bellamy
nationalists focused on nationalism (“my country over others”), a government
takeover of schools, rabid patriotism (e.g. Pledges of Allegiance in government
schools with the original straight-arm salute), and their interest in
nationalization, or public ownership and management of everything.
The government takeover of schools also led to segregation
imposed by law and taught as official policy, and it outlasted the National
Socialist German Workers' Party by decades.
Bellamy's influence was still going strong in 1938 with the
publication of Bellamy's “Talks on Nationalism.” President Franklin
Delano Roosevelt imposed national socialism and socialist slave numbers
(social security) in 1935 as a "worker's" program for Roosevelt’s vision
of the industrial army that coincided with similar numbering programs
of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party. During that time, children
in the government's segregated schools were required by law to salute
the flag with the straight-armed salute in military formation daily
on the ring of a government bell, like Pavlov’s lapdogs of the state.
Bellamy's "Talks on Nationalism" is a terrifying look at the parallels
between American National Socialists and German National Socialists.
German National Socialism was supported by American National
Socialism via German-Americans who joined the German American Bund
movement (Deutsch-Amerikanischer Volksbund) to support national socialists
in Germany before WWII. http://rexcurry.net/pledgebund.html
The Bund began as the Friends of New Germany in Chicago
in 1933. This group traced its roots to the Teutonia Society and
National Socialist Party, both active in the USA during the
The phrase "National Socialist" was added to the original name of the party
(the German Workers' Party), and the National Socialist German Workers'
Party also partnered with the "Nationalist Party" of Franz von Papen to
take power. In March of 1933 (03-05-1933), the National Socialist
German Workers Party received 44% of the total vote. Its 288 seats combined
with 52 Nationalist Party to give German National Socialists a bare 16-seat
majority (Shirer, Rise and Fall, pp. 195-196). [The plurality
of the NSDAP in the 07/31/32 election had been 37%, making
it the largest party for the first time. However, the NSDAP
lost two million voters in the 11/05/32 election and had
to partner with the Nationalist Party to create a bare 16-seat
majority]. It gave the National Socialists and Nationalists a clear
majority in the Reichstag. The leader of the National Socialist German
Workers' Party became chancellor of Germanay via deal-making with the Nationalist
Party of Franz von Papen. One breakthrough
for the NSDAP came in 1929, when the Nationalist Party solicited Hitler's
help in its campaign against the a plan for German reparations. Hitler
had campaigned in the presidential elections of 1932, losing to Paul von
Hindenburg, but strengthening his position by promising to support Chancellor
Franz von Papen of the Nationalist Party, who lifted the ban on the storm
troops (June, 1932). Hindenburg, on the urging of von Papen, called Hitler
to be chancellor of a coalition cabinet and Hitler took office on January
30, 1933. In growing difficulties, Hindenburg eventually dismissed the
government and appointed a new one under the ex-military man Franz von
Papen of the Nationalist Party, which immediately called for new Reichstag
elections. In those elections of July 1932, the National Socialist German
Workers Party had their best showing yet.
From 1868 to 1869, Edward Bellamy
spent a year in Germany, learning to speak and write German and attending
lectures and studying German socialism. Edward Bellamy even wrote A Süd
Deutsch Volklied (South German Peoples' Song) in German on the inside
cover of his notebook (dated Jan. 4, 1878, see Arthur Morgan's Edward
Bellamy from Columbia University Press 1944).
Edward's brother Frederick stated that Edward had talked
and read about socialism before Edward went to Germany. Frederick
wrote that Edward's letters to him from Germany were full of German
socialism which "he had read and studied much at home." (see Sylvia E.
Bowman's 1958 book The Year 2000).
While Bellamy was in Germany, the first German unions were
founded and the German Workers' Party (Die Deutsche Arbeiterpartei)
issued its program of socialist cliches that Bellamy repeated in his
bestseller (Looking Backward) and his other writings for the
rest of his life. (Die Deutsche Arbeiterpartei : Ihre Prinzipien und ihr
Programm. - Berlin : Jonas, 1868. - 32 p. ; 23 cm; also see Karl Marx: Randglossen
zum Programm d. deutschen Arbeiterpartei (1875) (Criticism of the Gothaer
of program. Marginal notes for the program of the German Labour Party) and
"On the Jewish Question" written in 1843 (published Feb.1844) by the anti-semitic
Karl Marx. See Friedrich Engels: The Prussian military question and the
German Labour Party (Written at the end of January until 11 February 1865).
And Friedrich Engels: Bismarck and the German Labour Party (Written in the
middle of July 1881).
Hitler's party (the National Socialist German Workers' Party or Nationalsozialistische
Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP ) had originally been named the German
Workers' Party and later added the phrase "National Socialism" to
the front of its name. Hitler had suggested that his Party be named
the "Social Revolutionary Party." The ominous parallel of Bellamy ideas
and U.S. socialists can be seen in the 25 point program of the NSDAP.
Edward later wrote in support of socialism, "It was in the
great cities of Europe and among the hovels of the peasantry that
my eyes were first fully opened to the extent and consequences of 'man's
inhumanity to man.'" But Edward died in 1898, and did not witness
the worst of man's inhumanity to man in the socialist Wholecaust (of
which the Holocaust was a part): the National Socialist German Workers'
Party (21 million); the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (62 million
people slaughtered); the People's Republic of China (35 million). The
invasion of Poland in WWII occurred in 1939, with the National Socialist
German Workers’ Party and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as allies
in their scheme to divide up Europe. It was preceded by Hitler's
1936 invasion of the Rhineland and the Sudetenland.
By 1936, National Socialism had grown so much in the USA
that Fritz Kuhn, the head of the German-American Bund, and a few of
his followers, visited Germany that same year in Berlin for the Summer Olympics. There
was much travel between Germany and America. There was even travel by
lighter-than-air crafts, and on May 6, 1937, while the Hindenburg was attempting
to land at the Lakehurst Naval Air Station in New Jersey, the entire airship
was consumed by fire.
In 1888, Bellamy Clubs (Nationalist Clubs) gained the backing
of the Theosophical Society and its leader, Madam Blavatsky. Theosophists
saw in the Nationalist Movement a practical means to further their
"ideal of universal brotherhood." (see Arthur E. Morgan in his
biography, Edward Bellamy, 1948, pp. 260-75; see also
The Key to Theosophy by H. P. Blavatsky, pp. 44-5. --
A symbol for Madame Blavatsky and the Theosophical Society includes
a swastika or hakenkreuz http://rexcurry.net/bellamy-blavatsky-brooch.gif
Blavatsky travelled extensively to Germany, India and worldwide
(The Esoteric World of Madame Blavatsky: Reminiscences and Impressions
by Those Who Knew Her by Daniel H. Caldwell: Chapter 14, Germany
and Return to India 1884-1885; Chapter 15, From India to Italy and Germany,
1885; Chapter 16, Germany 1886). After Bellamy's book Looking
Backward, Blavatsky continued to promote Theosophy and National
Socialism in Germany and worldwide.
Another mystical India-Germany promoter of National Socialism
was Savitri Devi. Known as the "Aryan Hindu prophetess," she believed
that Hitler was an avatar or god come to earth. Born Maximiani
Portas, she became a strong admirer of Hitler in the 1920s, moved to
India in 1932 because of its caste segregation system, and took a Hindu
name. Later, her writings were republished, and she gained new fans in the
1970s as new interest in National Socialism spread. Devi died in 1982, but
the author boasted that her combination of Hindu religion and Nordic racial
ideology became a bridge between National Socialism and the New Age movements.
Although the swastika was an ancient symbol, Professor Curry
showed that it was also used sometimes by German National Socialists
to represent "S" letters for their "socialism." Curry changed
the way that people view the symbol of the horrid National Socialist
German Workers' Party. Hitler altered his own signature to use the
same stylized "S" letter for "socialist" and similar alphabetic symbolism
still shows on Volkswagens. http://rexcurry.net/book1a1contents-swastika.html
John Toland’s biography of Hitler (p 183) discusses the
swastika and makes reference to Hans Knirsch, founder of the National
Socialist Workers' Party in Czeckoslovakia also known as the Sudetendeutsche
National Sozialistische Partei or Sudeten-German National Socialist
Party. If the swastika was a symbol of the Sudetendeutsche National
Sozialistische Partei, then it provides an additional early use of the
swastika's two overlapping "S" letters: "Südeten Socialism"
or even "Süd Socialism" or "Southern Socialism." The
word "Sudeten" came to mean "Southern" for many Germans, even though the
original etymology is unclear.
In 1897, the "American swastika" appeared for the first time
as the "equality symbol" ( = ) repeated all over the cover of Edward
Bellamy's new book Equality, his sequel to Looking Backward.
While the swastika/hakenkreuz was the symbol for German National Socialists,
the "equals sign" was the "swastika" for American National Socialists.
Bellamy wrote, "Nationalism is not based on the maxim 'To each according
to his needs, from each according to his abilities.' Of course, as
a matter of conscience, every man is bound to do all he can, and the
needs of others are sacred claims upon his service; but both abilities
and needs are indeterminate, and therefore could not be made the basis
of any regulation to be enforced by society. The principle of Nationalism
is: From all equally; to all equally" (The Christian Union, Nov.
13, 1890). The book Equality continues the story of Julian
West in Bellamy's totalitarian future of National Socialism.
In 1843, the anti-semitic Karl Marx wrote his notorious work
On the Jewish Question (published Feb.1844). In it, he
intended to libel Jewish folks when he said they were the quintessential
capitalists and worthy of total contempt. Marxists and
socialists had no interest in anyone they considered to be “the weak,”
only in the loyal, and their “language of social justice” concerned a
totalitarian plan for a new man, or more accurately a soldier ant in
an ant hill.
In Edward Bellamy's own weekly publication, The New Nation,
in which Bellamy touted his National Socialism, Bellamy would sell his
weekly combined with Karl Marx's Capital as a package deal. http://rexcurry.net/edward-bellamy-karl-marx.jpg
Note that the version of Capital offered in Bellamy's
New Nation is the translation by Dr. Edward Aveling (mentioned
The Manifesto of the Communist Party had been written
(1848) in German by the Germans Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels as the
Communist League's programme on the instruction of its Second Congress
(London, November 29-December 8, 1847). The first English translation,
made by Helen Macfarlane, was published between June and November 1850,
in the Chartist journal The Red Republican. Its editor, Julian
Harney, named the authors for the first time in the introduction to
this publication. All earlier and many subsequent editions of the Manifesto
were anonymous. Its advocates sought the overthrow of the existing
economic and social institutions and control by "the people" of all production,
distribution and industry. They sought also to abolish all idleness
and all private property except incomes and minor personal possessions.
Socialism grew in America and, according to Sylvia E. Bowan,
"Aside from the New York German Communist Club (1857), the first large,
organized society to propagate the idea of socialism was the German
Gymnastic Union, or Turnverein, which by 1850 was organized on a national
basis. The platform adopted in Philadelphia in 1850 'proclaimed
the promotion of socialism and the support of the socialistic democratic
party to be its chief purpose.' " (see Sylvia E. Bowman's 1958
book The Year 2000). (Also see the German American Bund movement
referenced above and at http://rexcurry.net/pledgeapology.html
The film "Triumph of the Will" (1934), directed by Leni Riefenstahl,
shows the National Socialist German Workers' Party parading its industrial
army. In keeping with their socialist dogma, Hitler is praised as
an "epitome of altruism" and the speakers refer to each other as "comrades"
who will cause a "revolution of the people and workers" to end "class
struggle" and create "egalitarianism." http://rexcurry.net/filmrev-triumph-of-the-will.html
Karl Marx's book Das Kapital had been published in
1867, the year before Bellamy's trip to Germany. Although it
was not translated into English until after 1886, his ideas had been
promoted in newspapers and pamphlets. Edward Bellamy learned how
to speak and write in German during his stay in Germany. While Bellamy
was in Germany, Marx fought with Bakunin and Proudhon in the First International
about their fundamentals of "social revolution." Bebel and Liebknecht
took part in the debates, also.
In 1886, Dr. Edward Aveling and his wife Eleanor -the daughter
of Karl Marx- wrote that when they toured the U.S. and preached the
gospel of socialism as far westward as Kansas, they were surprised
by the prevalence of what they termed "unconscious socialism" and that
the "American people ... were waiting to hear in their own language
what socialism is."
Later, Looking Backward was popular among the elite
in pre-revolutionary Russia, and Lenin’s wife was known to have read
the book, because she wrote a review of it.
Bellamy exemplified the amateurism and irrationalism of National
Socialism. It is similar to the experience of Peter Drucker in a
meeting of farmers. A member of the National Socialist German Workers’
Party had shouted to the cheering crowd: "We don't want lower bread
prices, we don't want higher bread prices, we don't want unchanged bread
prices - we want National-Socialist bread prices."
In 1867, Bellamy became a bitter military failure due to
his inability to pass the physical exam at West Point. Still,
he loved Prussian militarism and the educational system.
Bellamy's 1868-1869 stay in Germany (including Dresden)
occurred shortly after the war between Prussia and Austria.
Saxony, of which Dresden was the capital, had sided with Austria, had
been conquered by Prussia, and then had joined the North German Federation.
That would interest all who loathe the monstrous National Socialist
German Workers’ Party, because Prussia led to the formation of the
German empire, and after World War I, Prussia continued to exist as the
largest Land (state) within the Weimar Republic and under the National
Socialist German Workers’ Party. After World War II it was dissolved
by decree of the Allied Control Council in 1947.
At the time this was written, the Theosophical Society of
America (TSA) continued to maintain its Springfield Branch office
at the Edward Bellamy House, 93 Church Street, Chicopee, MA and also
its library. Recent lectures included "Discovering the Secrets in
the Akashic Records" and "Alchemical Art Therapy" and "Gnosis: An
Ancient Path of Illumination."
About Edward Bellamy's time in Germany, the author Sylvia
E. Bowman states "Though his story 'Lost' and some unfinished stories
are based upon this European sojourn, very little was recorded by Bellamy
or others about this period of his life."
As a libertarian lawyer, Dr. Curry provides pro bono services
nationwide to educate the public about the news-making historical discoveries.
1. Dr. Curry showed that the USA's first Pledge of Allegiance
used a straight-arm salute and it was the origin of the salute of
the monstrous National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazis). Professor
Curry helped to establish that it was not an ancient Roman salute,
and that the "ancient Roman salute" is a myth. http://rexcurry.net/pledgesalute.html
3. Francis Bellamy (author of the "Pledge of Allegiance")
and Edward Bellamy (author of the novel "Looking Backward") and Charles
Bellamy (author of "A Moment of Madness") were socialists. Edward
and Charles were brothers, and Francis was their cousin. Francis and
Edward were both self-proclaimed National Socialists and they supported
the "Nationalism" movement in the USA, the "Nationalist" magazine, the
"Nationalist Educational Association," and their dogma of "military socialism,"
and Edward inspired the "Nationalist Party" (in the USA) and their
dogma influenced socialists in Germany, and the Pledge was the origin
of the Nazi salute. "Nazi" means "National Socialist German Workers'
Party." A mnemonic device is the swastika. Although the swastika was an
ancient symbol, Professor Curry discovered that it was also used sometimes
by German National Socialists to represent "S" letters for their "socialism."
Curry changed the way that people view the symbol of the horrid
National Socialist German Workers' Party. Hitler altered his own signature
to use the same stylized "S" letter for "socialist" and similar alphabetic
symbolism still shows on Volkswagens. http://rexcurry.net/book1a1contents-swastika.html
Dr. Curry showed that many modern myths about swastikas
are based on the false belief that Nazis called their symbol a "swastika."
German National Socialists did not use the word "swastika," but called
their symbol a "Hakenkreuz." Professor Curry showed that
many modern myths rely on a false belief that Nazis called themselves
"Nazis" or used some other term (Party members referred to themselves
as "National Socialists" and did not use the term "Nazis").